RO- The water purifying technology


RO plant is the water purifying technology. RO plant for domestic uses is an artificial process. It works only with the principle of pressure difference. In this process, we counter the natural flow of solvent from its higher concentration two the lower one. Since we have to reverse the natural flow, we have to apply external pressure to counter the osmotic pressure. Through this process, we remove impurities from the water to make it into a potable one. This process is used over a wide range to make impure water into drinkable. The process is carried out through a membrane called a semipermeable membrane.

Mechanism On Which RO Plant Works

Reverse Osmosis is the process through which we restrict the natural flow of solvent by applying external pressure more incredible than the osmotic pressure, which is a colligative property, to get purified water out through. In this process, there are two chambers. In one chamber, there is a greater concentration of solute, and in the other, there is a lower concentration as compared to the former one. Naturally, the liquid should flow from its higher concentration to its lower concentration, provided no external pressure is applied. The osmotic pressure is the pleasure required to stop the natural flow of liquid from one concentration to another. If we apply pressure greater than the osmotic one, the flow gets reversed and hence passes through a process known as the reverse process. 

In the RO plant, the movement of the solvent is from a higher concentration of solute particles to a lower concentration of solute particles. In other words, we can say the solution passes from hypertonic reason to hypertonic reason. The hypertonic reason has a lower concentration of liquid molecules, whereas the hypotonic reason has a higher concentration of water molecules. Usually, the external pressures that we applied are from 7 – 15 bar for freshwater and 35 – 85 bar for seawater. 

During purification, the clean or drinkable water acts as a hypotonic solution, and the impure or undrinkable water functions as a hypertonic solution. Hence the natural flow should flow from potable water to the impure one, but when we apply pressure on the side of contaminated water, the flow gets reversed, and we are getting fresh water through it.

The membrane used in this process it’s called a semipermeable membrane or selectively permeable membrane, which allows selective things to flow through. This case only allows solvent to flow through it but says no to a solute particle whose size is more significant than that of solvent one.

Pros And Cons Of RO Plant

There are many pros and cons related to the RO:

RO Plants Pros

  1. Reverse Osmosis Gives Better Water Quality For Cooking

Many food industries started using RO plant water. It adds taste to the food and also promotes a healthy and clean life. Not only in restaurants, but one can also use it in the house to make better, tasty, and healthy food.

  1. Reverse Osmosis Removes Impurity On A Grander Scale

This is the most crucial reason why RO plants stand out in the market. It removes many impurities and gases which can be proven to be harmful to our body. That’s why the RO plant market is growing very fastly due to the quality that it contains.

  1. It Is An Excellent Alternative To Bottled Water 

It is safe and friendly for us – we know that plastic bottles are harmful to the environment due to their non-decomposition nature. Hence worth getting replaced. It is safe and more environmentally friendly than plastic bottles and needs to be adopted as soon as possible.

RO Plants Cons

  1. Waste of water

In removing impurities, RO wastewaters are on a broader range and we can’t use it again. It purifies only a fraction of tap water, and hence it is not only wastewater, but it uses more electricity also. Resulting in rising electric bills.

  1. Removal Of Some Critical Minerals Also

While purifying, RO plant removes some essential minerals also. That should be present in the water for the proper functioning of the human body. So to bring minerals back in, one should do a re-mineralization process that restores beneficial minerals, including Calcium, Magnesium, and Potassium, among others.


RO plant is a water purifier plant. It passes the solution through a semipermeable membrane, allowing the only solvent to pass and restrict the solute particle. In the RO plant, the movement of the solvent is from a higher concentration of solute particles to a lower concentration of solute particles. This process required external pressure greater than osmotic pressure. 

Every element has some loopholes, and the case of the RO plant is no different. It has many pros and cons. While removing many harmful impurities and gases, it also removes some crucial minerals like calcium and magnesium. Its market is growing as days pass by. In 2017 its market was US$7 billion and expected to cross US$13 by the year 2023.


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