The Complete Guide to Every Operating System


Every operating system has its own strengths and weaknesses, but which one is best for you? The answer to that question depends on your needs. Afrohi Storama will help you decide which operating system is right for you, so check it out!

Operating System, Windows, Os, Seven

Operating system

Linux, Unix, and Mac OS X are all operating systems. The word “operating system” is often used interchangeably with the term “OS.” An operating system consists of a kernel that manages hardware resources (processor time, memory space), one or more programming languages for writing software applications (JavaScript to write web apps, C++ to play games). As well as other functions necessary for an end-user application like Microsoft Word. The most common user interface for desktop computers is the Windows Operating System developed by Microsoft Corporation.

The core components of any operating system include:

The Userspace

The userspace is a virtual space where application software can run. It contains all of a computer’s core functionality that isn’t part of the kernel or other low-level components.

The userspace includes what is typically associated with the term operating system (OS). The kernel and userspace are often referred to collectively as “the operating system” or just “the OS”.

The System Libraries

The libraries provide fundamental functionality that can be used by other parts of the software without being explicitly called. The user interface, for example, relies on graphics libraries to draw windows while a web browser uses network protocols such as TCP/IP in conjunction with lower-level code like socket APIs. These low level components are also provided by the kernel itself. But abstracted via higher-level calls within each library so developers don’t need to interact directly with them.

The Desktop Environment(s)

A desktop environment provides end-users with a graphical user interface (GUI). It allows them to interact with the computer using a mouse as well as keyboard shortcuts. The environment handles most of the interaction between the end-user and software, such as window management, application launching, file management etc. It provides an abstraction layer for each piece of hardware in order to compartmentalize different components within one system rather than having multiple machines with single purpose devices.

The Kernel

The kernel is responsible for managing access to any device attached to the machine by programs running on it or other kernels present along its network connection(s). Each operating system has its own unique kernel. But they all share some common features which are discussed below: Process Management process manages program execution including functions like scheduling, memory management etc. The kernel schedules all processes to ensure that each process has enough time on the CPU without taking too much control over it and causing system failures. The most common scheduling algorithm used in modern kernels is known as “Preemptive Multitasking”. It switches between different running programs (processes) based on their priority levels

Memory Management

The Kernel manages allocation of non-shared memory space for each program along with providing facilities like mapping files into memory & file locking mechanisms . It also handles physical devices attached to the machine by managing read/write access permissions using device drivers. The kernel provides abstraction layers for hardware by assigning virtual addresses corresponding to physical locations of devices across various buses present inside a computer or a device. The memory management unit (MMU) of the processor is responsible for converting virtual addresses to physical ones and vice-versa. thus allowing different processes to share a common physical space . The kernel also manages various files present in the file system through both input/output control and security access rights using File Management System (FMS).

Use of Linux

The use of Linux operating systems has increased greatly over the years due to its support across all platforms , low cost & customizability features. The widespread adoption can be attributed largely because it’s open source nature. It allows users from around the world to make changes and improve upon existing code or add new functionalities according to their needs . This collaborative effort by developers makes Ubuntu one of most widely used Operating Systems in the world. The vast number of tools & applications available on Linux Operating System offer great flexibility when it comes to customizing your system accordingly . It can be configured for a variety of work environments, from simple home-user systems up to complex enterprise level servers . Another thing that makes Ubuntu stand out is its ease of installation and configuration. It ensures users are able to get started quickly , even if they lack much experience with Unix style operating systems


The most popular Linux distribution with a strong focus on usability an desktop environment . Ubuntu is usually recommended for novice users who are switching over from Windows or Mac. The installation of the system is pretty simple , but if you have no experience in this area it might be good idea to check out some tutorials before starting the process so that things go smoothly without any problems. There are several ways how you can get hold of your own copy: buy pre installed computer, download and burn onto DVD disc (this method takes up less space ), make bootable usb stick etc. Once installed and running there will be plenty of software available through official repositories ready for install directly from command line via apt-get. The first thing you will probably want to do is enable some drivers for your hardware .


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